A lot of times we get focused on the personal protective equipment that keeps the diver encapsulated in hopes that the diver has reduced exposure to the materials they may come in contact with and we tend to forget about the other support ensemble and ancillary equipment that is also exposed to the same environments.
If you dive in contaminated water, and most public safety divers will, then you must be aware of the procedures to be followed for decontamination, i.e., the cleaning of the diver and his gear following a dive.
by Dr. Thomas Powell:
Scuba diving is a sport in which a person can always grow and learn. Anyone who has looked at the list of available classes out there can understand that the sky is the limit when it comes to scuba education. Similarly, there exist multiple types of diving around which a diver can focus education, skill progression, and experience. The reality of the various educational pathways is that they all have the potential to build upon one another.
Public Safety Diving is a type of diving based upon the training divers receive along a pathway. First, public safety divers are trained as open water scuba divers. From that point, they may venture directly into the public safety realm or move on to learn more about technical or recreational skill sets. Like any other subject, increased education and experience often leads toward an improved level of overall performance. Essentially, the more a diver gets wet, and the more that diver tries to learn, the better he or she may have the potential to become as a public safety diver.
Public safety diving is one of the most dangerous realms within scuba diving. Divers often enter the water not knowing bottom terrain, currents may be present, and the visibility may be nil. Similarly, the technical diving realm is one in which divers work to better understand physiology, gas switches, safety precautions, and bailout procedures. Many of these activities are practiced without a mask while maintaining neutral buoyancy. Each of these subjects has a direct correlation to public safety diving. Imagine that a diver is in zero visibility, stuck in an entanglement hazard, and low on air. Technical training can better prepare that public safety diver to handle gas switches and emergency procedures while blind.
Similarly, technical divers tend to focus on streamlining equipment, exposure protection, moving items for convenient placement, neutral buoyancy, launching buoys and bags, and equipment redundancy. Again, each of these actions can also be found within public safety diving. First, public safety divers often carry lots of equipment and wear bulky garments. This equipment must be streamlined to prevent entanglement issues and moved around as needed for easy access in zero visibility. Second, public safety divers often spend time on the bottom doing hand searches for missing items. The problem with settling on the bottom is that the diver may accidentally move, cover, bury, or miss an item. The diver may also further “muck up” the environment for secondary searches. Finally, public safety divers often carry lots of redundant items for safety. Many of these items may be marker buoys or even lift bags.
Technical training may be a perfect baseline for any public safety diver. Technical training can teach a diver to perform tasks while close to the bottom but maintaining neutral buoyancy, and move excess items around on the body in a fashion that helps streamline equipment and reduce the effect on diver trim. Essentially, technical training may allow a public safety diver to better understand how to carry equipment, use equipment, reduce any effect on bottom terrain, and avoid the development of foreseeable problems. Every Technical Diving International class also teaches divers to launch buoys and bags. Every public safety diver must be proficient at launching marker buoys and working with lift bags. Again, this is technical training that can help any public safety diver become more proficient at his or her trade.
In regard to overhead environments, technical training may also include cave training. Cave training teaches divers how to be safe and proficient in overhead environments when visibility may change in a quick fashion. Cave divers learn to lay lines that can be followed back to an exit while working in a confined space and as a team. Again, each of these actions is something valuable to a public safety diver. Almost any environment may be considered an overhead environment for a public safety diver. If the diver cannot see, he or she may not know what is overhead or if there is an obstruction between the diver and the surface. Training to lay lines and understand how to properly backtrack can help a public safety diver remain safe in an unknown environment. Similarly, a proper education on laying lines can help a diver or dive team return to a known location in an efficient fashion, mark specific positions, and do so while maintaining a tight continuous line with minimal extraneous hazard developments. Finally, cave divers are trained to deal with tight spaces. Imagine a public safety diver entering a wrecked school bus in an effort to perform a recovery. That diver must be able to act and react in a proficient fashion with minimal space to move. This is something that cave classes teach.
Technical training is something that can help any public safety diver become more proficient at necessary skill sets. The current problem is that many public safety divers begin public safety training and do not have the personal time or resources to take on technical programs. As excess or secondary training opportunities, technical classes should be considered by public safety dive teams to help provide growth and development opportunities for divers. Education and time in the water is something that can help any diver. The first big step is to inquire about training opportunities and to decide for yourself how it can help you or your team.
– Dr. Thomas Powell
Owner/Instructor Trainer – Air Hogs Scuba, Garner, NC
by Steven M. Barsky:
“They mostly come at night. Mostly…”
The character “Newt (Rebecca)” in the film Aliens, talking about the aliens that attack and make humans their hosts to grow additional aliens.
Of all the diving performed by professional and commercial divers, black water diving has to be the most challenging on a purely psychological basis. It’s not that it is particularly technically difficult, but it’s the type of diving that gives most people the creeps if you can get them in an honest discussion.
In truly black water, everything must be done by feel. It’s virtually impossible to read a gauge that is not backlit, and you may not locate the dead body you’re searching for until you literally run into it. Not a happy experience.
At our most basic level, most children experience some fear of the dark during childhood. The boogeyman under the bed and the monster hiding in the closet are issues almost every parent knows well. As adults we outgrow these worries, but most people are aware that predators (both human and four legged) hunt in the dark and this issue is one that most people push into the back of their minds. The predator you can’t see is the one that evokes the most worry, even when an attack is unlikely. Psychologists refer to fear of the dark as “nyctophobia.”
Given a choice, most divers would prefer to dive in clear water with unlimited visibility. Unfortunately, especially for the public safety diver, these types of dives are rarely, if ever, encountered. Limited visibility, for example a field of view of one to two feet, is something that most of us can cope with easily. True black water, where the visibility is zero, presents a much greater series of issues.
In a black water dive, there are many real risks that are of much greater concern than the boogeyman. The first question you should be asking, prior to any dive in black water or poor visibility, is why is the water dirty? There’s a very good chance that if the water is not clear, it’s probably polluted.
Other risks that are common during black water dives include the possibility of entanglement, cuts to the hands and body, the possibility of unknowingly swimming into some type of enclosure, and difficulty dealing with out of air emergencies. During a black water dive, all of these dangers are real and it’s possible to encounter all of them during a single dive.
Diving in black water requires special equipment. Some of the items you will need include a full-face mask with communications (or a diving helmet), a tether (or umbilical), gloves, side cutters or other tool capable of cutting wire, and a knife.
The full-face mask with communications is vital because you need a way to call for help if you are entangled or have encountered some other type of difficulty. In addition, if you are diving in biologically or other minimally contaminated water, the full-face mask will help to protect your eyes, nose, and mouth from contaminants. Of course, in contaminated water you will need a dry suit and dry gloves, too.
Tethered scuba is an acceptable way to dive with scuba in black water, but it does have its limitations. The chief limitation with open circuit scuba is a finite air supply. The tether can incorporate a communications wire and this may be very desirable in places where wireless communications does not work well. In a best case scenario, the diver is wearing a helmet with an umbilical from the surface. Whatever type of specialized life support gear you use must be mastered before you venture into a black water diving scenario.
Gloves are especially important in black water, not only to protect you from the cold or pollutants, but also to protect the hands from possible cuts due to debris that may be located on the bottom. In harbors or marinas, you may encounter broken glass, barbed wire, razor sharp metal, and other similar items. A crashed small aircraft will likely be broken into numerous razor sharp pieces of metal with cables and wires waiting to snag the diver.
Side cutters or other tools that are capable of cutting wire are essential for diving in black water. You simply cannot cut wire such as fishing leader or similar materials with most diving knives.
You need a very sharp knife, sharper than most ordinary diving knives, for diving in black water. You absolutely must be able to cut your way out of any potential entanglement.
Training is Key
Training for diving in black water starts with complete familiarization with any specialized gear you select for your dive. If you cannot operate your equipment and perform all the necessary skills to handle an emergency under optimal conditions, you certainly won’t be able to perform these tasks in black water. In addition, you must test any cutting gear you have to ensure that it is sharp and that you can cut wire easily.
Black water training typically starts in a swimming pool with the diver’s mask being blacked out. You need to practice ALL of the skills you may need to be called upon to perform, including, but not limited to:
- Ability to handle all of your equipment
- Using a side cutter or other cutting tool to cut wire and remove entanglement from self and another diver
- Using a knife to remove entanglement from self and another diver
- Ability to rescue another diver, i.e, towing the diver underwater, through or around obstacles
- Dealing with out of air emergencies
- Conducting search patterns
All of these skills must mastered before moving on to the next step, which is practicing these skills in open water under conditions where there is some visibility. The diver playing the diver being rescue should not have his masked blacked out so he can observe the rescuer to make sure he is performing the skills correctly.
Ultimately, all divers on your team should practice these skills under true black water conditions until they have developed both comfort and proficiency. Hovering in black water is nearly an impossible skill, but when you’re diving with tethered scuba or an umbilical, this is a non-issue.
Taking photos or video of an underwater crime scene is pretty much an impossible task in black water. Many years ago, the commercial diving company, Oceaneering, developed a black water photography system, consisting of a camera with a plexiglass box filled with fresh water, through which objects could be photographed. Obviously, this system only worked well with flat objects. People have also experimented with constructing underwater “tents” out of vinyl and using alum to attempt to settle out particulate matter, but to my knowledge, none of these techniques worked particularly well.
Environments where black water may be encountered include just about any location where you might be called to dive. If you dive inside major harbors, there may be decent visibility to start your dive, but as soon as you work on the bottom you may experience zero visibility conditions.
As with all diving, the keys are to have the right equipment, maintenance for your equipment, realistic training, and plenty of practice to maintain proficiency. Failure to ensure that each of these requirements are met can lead a dive team to failure, or even the death of team members.
Steven M. Barsky is a former commercial diver, TDI instructor, diving consultant, underwater photographer and author. He retired to Utah in 2014 and spends most of his days reloading, shooting archery, target shooting, hunting and hiking in the mountains nearby.
All photos copyright Steven M. Barsky. All rights reserved.
Photo #1 © Barsky
There is a big difference between diving in limited visibility conditions and diving in black water.
Photo #2 © Barsky
If you’re going to dive in black water, a full-face mask with communications (or a diving helmet) is essential.
Photo #3 © Barsky
Some type of cutting tool is essential for dealing with wire that may cause entanglement.
Photo #4 © Barsky
If your dives take place inside harbors, you may frequently encounter black water.
by Steve Smock:
Just like your family car utilizes technology that was born on the racetrack for top race car teams; available for Public Safety Dive Teams (PSD) is technology that was developed for the aerospace industry, military, scientific community and commercial diving. Depending on the mission, PSD teams routinely adopt dive techniques from all types of diving disciplines. So it only seems reasonable to adopt some of the equipment these professional divers use.
Here are three ways of many, to use technology that has its roots in other maritime industries, to increase the safety and effectiveness of your dive team when it comes to managing diver air consumption. This technology is available, appropriate and cost effective for most public safety dive teams.
1. Keep them on the surface:
Seems simple enough, kind of hard to have an out-of-air emergency if you never get in the water in the first place. So, if the operation does not warrant the immediate deployment of a diver, why not consider using SONAR? Sonar has been around since the beginning of WWI to assist in the detection of submarines. Today not only navies, but also scientists, engineers and archaeologists use sonar technology to assist them in their operations. They rely on sonar technology to provide protection, increased productivity, effectiveness and cost efficiency. These professionals would not be able to, or even consider doing a mission, research project, or construction job without this invaluable tool. Neither should the professional PSD teams.
PSD teams can achieve the same benefits as their professional counterparts by using this same technology. Using sonar to limit dive search times, consistently find targets, visually monitor divers, and provide an additional security measure equals a safer, more productive and effective dive team. With this comes the added benefit of being cost efficient, which we know is something that can repay itself in the form of additional equipment, personnel and training.
Sonar should be looked at as a piece of gear that assists the diver, not takes the place of. One of the many advantages of sonar is it doesn’t require air to work. In fact most sonar won’t work well for very long in an air environment. Without worrying about air consumption you can run sonar for hours, record, verify search coverage and document multiple targets with recordings and GPS for later reference. Technology of sonar systems has advanced to where within a couple of training sessions, the average first responder who doesn’t make it a career working in this field, can deploy and achieve a workable image of the bottom. Most manufacturers have built products and software with the average PSD team in mind. As with the race car analogy, they have taken the technology and met the requirements that it be “drivable” for the average PSD team; meaning, it is simple enough to remember the basics, quickly deployable, portable and most importantly, works. Using sonar demonstrates to the public and management a degree of sophistication and professionalism while most importantly decreasing or even eliminating the chance of an out-of-air emergency.
2. Give them unlimited air:
Okay, so now the sonar has done its job, you have possible or verified targets and it’s time to splash divers. So why not give them unlimited air? The best thing about using surface supply air is: as long as you have full scuba tanks on the surface, your diver will have air at depth. Surface supply systems for PSD teams have been around since the early 70’s. They are portable, require a minimum amount of training (ERDI has a Interspero SSA course) and are extremely reliable. The equipment is proven and professional, it is the same gear being used in the demanding commercial dive profession. In addition, surface supply systems give you a strength rated tending line, camera, reliable two-way voice communications, redundant air systems and a harness to pull a diver out in case of an emergency.
In traditional SCUBA the diver really has two jobs, monitor his equipment to ensure it continues to deliver air and perform the task he was sent in to do. Depending on the skill and experience of the diver, the job of diving his equipment can sometimes overtake the focus of what his primary job is. With surface supply, the diver is free to focus on his primary task. He has a complete support team on the surface that is helping him dive. They are monitoring his air consumption, air supply, emergency air supply and depth. The support team can tell by listening to the diver’s respiratory rate if he/she is working too hard, has anxiety, is panicking or some other medical condition. The diver can hear and speak clearly to support personnel, receive further instructions, be advised to support another diver, and provide a live video feed. Further, the helmet, combined with a dry suit, is the best protection against contaminated water and head trauma.
If the purchase of a helmet is not possible or you need additional capabilities, a surface supply set up can be used with a full face mask for just about all the same advantages including air consumption. PSD teams may also want to consider the use of a buoyancy compensator with this system. This is a debate among some in the industry but many teams have used it with great success.
Regardless of how you piece together the components of the surface supply system, with training and minimal maintenance this dive mode will offer your team one of the safest ways to conduct a public safety dive operation. There are PSD teams which have an understanding that surface supply will be used as the primary dive mode unless it is impractical or infeasible to use.
3. Give them the most efficient breathing rig:
Sometimes you have to get in and do it the old school way and just dive it. But why not dive it with new school technology. Rebreather technology has been improving since Henry Fleuss first invented a commercially acceptable rebreather in 1878. Since then manufacturers have continually developed safer rigs and training agencies have and are continually improving training programs and standards. The public safety diver can take advantage of what technical divers have known for years. With this technology the diver can have hours versus minutes of air availability. With the use of mixed gas, divers can go deeper, stay for longer periods of time and have shorter surface intervals over open circuit diving. Numerous articles are written about the pros and cons of rebreathers and types of rebreathers. You will have to decide which one, if any, is right for your team. However, one way of minimizing the cons is to look at the simplest rig to operate; a mechanical, semi-closed system. There are rigs in this category that offer up to a 10 to 1 ratio of air consumption vs. open circuit. Two of these rigs can take the place of up to 15 tanks. An example of this is: during a recent dive we had four divers and two semi-closed rigs. The first two divers did a 130-foot dive for about 30 minutes. After surfacing, the other two divers donned the rigs and dove the same profile. After surfacing, there was enough air for a third dive at the same depth and time, all using the same tank. For operating in small boats, that is quite a bit of welcomed room.
Our Team is fortunate enough to possess systems in each of these categories. I have purposely left out the names of the manufacturers. Our opinion is that we have purchased the best systems on the market, but it can be a bit like picking Chevy or Ford, Cowboys or Redskins. Anyone who has been to a dive trade show or flipped through a dive catalog knows each manufacturer believes they have a better mousetrap, and indeed they should believe that, they are selling divers equipment they depend on to keep them alive in a harsh environment. Fortunately for you and your team, you would have to look long and hard to find a piece of gear that is inherently flawed and poses a liability.
The best thing is to research the product by talking with other agencies that have the equipment, visit with the manufacturer or at least a rep, “test drive” the gear and evaluate the product with your team’s budget, mission requirements and existing equipment integration in mind. Once you decide and purchase a system, stick with that system. Train on it, know all the pros and cons, develop a relationship with the manufacturer or retailer for continued support and build your capabilities around the equipment. Mixing and matching dive components usually just creates confusion and leads to nothing more than a customized flawed system. Most critically, one that you’re responsible for and your dive team is depending on.
There are many ways and several steps in developing the safest dive plan possible for public safety divers. Asking these three questions is a good starting point:
- Is there an alternative to putting divers in the water?
- If I do put divers in, how can I give them the most amount of air?
- How can I maximize their air consumption?
There are of course many other ways to answer these questions than I have suggested, and other forms of technology and dive modes. Since the vast majority of dive fatalities are a result of running out of air, public safety dive teams should be aware of the benefits of technology other industries can provide to reduce this risk. Your family is much safer today driving down the road because of advances in technology, so why shouldn’t you and your team be safer because of it also?
Public Safety Dive Team Supervisor
by Dr. Thomas Powell:
Around the world, various groups and organizations work to protect and support local communities through public safety activities. One particular group of public servants who can be found in almost any community consists of firefighters. Each day, firefighters work to save lives, fight fires, provide medical support, and in certain cases provide special team capabilities for communities. Special team capabilities may include search and rescue, hazardous materials decontamination, dive operations, and other things.
Each day, firefighters use specific gear designed to keep them safe in hazardous environments. This equipment includes items for exposure protection, breathing, and performing tasks. In many ways, the gear carried by firefighters is very similar to scuba gear carried by public safety divers and that gear often serves many of the same purposes. Listed below are some examples of these similarities.
- Turn Out Gear
- Breathing Apparatus
- Alarms and Computers
- Buddy Teams
First, firefighters carry equipment for personal protection. This gear consists of a jacket, pants, boots, gloves, and a helmet. The jacket and pants are designed to be fire-resistant and are often adorned with reflective markings for increased visibility in poor conditions. Similarly, the gloves provide hand protection as a firefighter may reach for hot objects and the boots are designed to be puncture resistant since they may be worn in dangerous environments. Lastly, the helmet protects a firefighter’s head from falling objects or airborne debris.
Like firefighters, public safety divers wear equipment for personal protection. Dry suits are often worn to protect divers from hazardous environments and to provide thermal regulation in poor conditions. Gloves are worn to protect the hands as divers perform searches and boots cover the feet (weather mounted to a dry suit or worn over soft soles) to ensure a diver can walk and move in a proper fashion. Divers even wear helmets on occasion when overhead environments or debris in the water may present the possibility of a possible head injury. Just like firefighters, public safety divers must wear equipment designed to protect them from harsh environments so that rescue or recovery operations can be performed. Similarly, the majority of personal protection equipment designed for public safety divers also has reflective taping just like the equipment worn by firefighters.
When a firefighter enters a burning building, the presence of smoke may reduce the firefighter’s ability to breath in a safe fashion. To When a firefighter enters a burning building, the presence of smoke may reduce the firefighter’s ability to breath in a safe fashion. To overcome this issue, each firefighter may wear a self-contained breathing apparatus or SCBA. An SCBA provides clean breathing gas on demand to a firefighter wearing a mask that covers his or her face. In comparison, divers cannot breathe underwater without the availability of breathing gas. Public safety divers often carry cylinders which feed compressed breathing gas to second stages attached to full-face masks. Like firefighters, full-face masks are worn to provide a clean breathing space and facial protection from the outside environment.
In both situations, cylinders are carried by public safety personnel. These cylinders must be analyzed and inspected for use. The Department of Transportation requires hydrostatic testing to be performed on cylinders every five years, and developed standards within the scuba industry call for a visual inspection every 12 months. The process of performing a visual inspection is something that public safety personnel can now be trained to do for his or her department (and for personal cylinders) through Scuba Diving International.
Many firefighters carry personal safety alarms when they are called to fight fires. The purpose of the alarm is to sound after a period of non-movement. The alarm is designed to inform others that a firefighter is in trouble as well as to signal his or her location. These alarms are called personal alert safety systems or PASS devices. Often they are worn in conjunction with a firefighter’s breathing apparatus. Similarly, public safety divers often wear computers designed to collect data and provide information related to safety. If a diver ascends too quickly or does not follow the proper profile, audible or visual alarms will signal to the diver.
With regard to tools, firefighters use many. These tools may include axes, hammers, lights, ropes, crow bars, shovels, halligan bars, wrenches, and various other items. These tools allow firefighters to perform tasks in as safe a manner as possible. Like firefighters, public safety divers may carry many different tools. These tools may include lights, knives, shears, metal detectors, pry bars, window punches, line cutters, and various other items. Though the tools used by public safety divers may not be as “heavy-duty,” they are often used for similar purposes. In each case, a public safety individual may need to cut, pry, bend, break, or even find an item. Tools are used to complete necessary objectives.
Finally, though it is not an equipment factor, both public safety divers and firefighters use buddy teams. Firefighters often maintain a “two in – two out” plan. The goal is that a paired team enters a dangerous environment together and then the pair exits together. Public safety divers work in the same fashion. A diver either dives with a buddy in the water, or attached to a tender via a tether. In each situation, every diver maintains a buddy at all times and the diver and buddy care for each other until the dive is complete.
Public safety personnel often perform similar tasks and use instruments to complete objectives that are very comparable. The working environment may be the real difference. Essentially, divers work in an aquatic environment whereas firefighters often deal with flames. Despite differing environments, equipment is generally designed to suit similar needs in these differing environments. These similarities are what make operational changes and transitions more acceptable for people serving in more than one role. A firefighter may be trained to deal with burning buildings, but when the need arises, with proper training that same firefighter can adapt to perform dive operations. The fact that the equipment has similar functionality only makes these transitions easier to understand and the use of similar equipment more sensible.
– Dr. Thomas Powell
Owner/Instructor Trainer – Air Hogs Scuba – Garner, NC
by Darrell Adams:
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards have become the most widely accepted standards for agencies that are responsible for providing technical search and rescue services in the United States. These standards provide a framework to help agencies more effectively manage their operations, reasonably ensure they have competently trained personnel, and limit liability by conforming or adhering to consensus based standards that have been developed by the search and rescue community, product manufacturers, training organizations and other technical rescue professionals. The NFPA standards address many different professional qualifications for the technical rescue disciplines such as water rescue, rope rescue, confined space, vehicle and machinery extrication, and several more. There are NFPA standards that also cover other aspects like the health and safety of response personnel, as well as working equipment and the personal protective ensemble of the response personnel. NFPA standards are reviewed periodically to address the changes within the search and rescue communities’ methodology and to address manufacturer changes and advancements.
There are two standards that address the majority of the aspects of technical rescue with the first being the NFPA 1670 (Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents 2014 edition) standard that identifies and establishes the level of “functional capability” for organizations who respond to technical search and rescue incidents. The 1670 Standard outlines how to conduct technical rescue operations safely and effectively while minimizing risk to rescuers. The 1670 Standard is intended to help the “Authority Having Jurisdiction” (AHJ) assess technical rescue hazards within a given response area, identify the level of operational capability, and establish guidelines for incident operations and training. Within this standard it addresses thirteen different technical rescue disciplines (Rope, Structural Collapse, Confine Space, Vehicle, Water, Wilderness, Trench, Machinery, Cave, Mine, Helicopter, Tower, and Animal Search and Rescue). An organization can determine the level of operational capability to each of these disciplines as they apply to their agency based on an individual needs assessment. These different levels of operational capability address specific concerns that are associated with the specific environments. Rope rescue however is one of those disciplines that blends and crosses over into the other disciplines and is not limited by environment. Therefore, it should be considered when an agency is developing programs in these other areas. The levels of operational capability for the disciplines in NFPA 1670 are listed as:
The Awareness Level that “represents the minimum capabilities of organizations that provide response in technical search and rescue incidents.”
The Operations Level that “represents the capability of organizations to respond to technical search and rescue incidents and to identify hazards, use equipment and apply limited techniques specific in this standard to support and participate in technical search and rescue incidents.”
The Technician Level that “represents the capability of organizations to respond to technical search and rescue incidents, to identity hazards, use equipment, and apply advanced techniques specified in this standard necessary to coordinate, perform, and supervise technical search and rescue incidents.”
The second standard is NFPA 1006 (Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications 2013 edition). This standard identifies the minimum job performance requirements (JPRs) for technical response personnel who perform technical rescue operations. This standard does not limit an organization on training but it does establish a “minimum level of competency for a rescuer” within each rescue discipline. It is aimed at the rescuer’s ability to demonstrate skill proficiency. The job performance requirements defined in chapter five “shall be met prior to being qualified as a technical rescuer relative to the discipline specific chapters.” The subject matter addressed in chapter five is: Site Operations, Victim Management, Maintenance, and Ropes/Rigging. The chapter-specific disciplines of NFPA 1006 are: Ropes, Confine Space, Trench, Structure Collapse, Vehicle Rescue, Surface Water, Swiftwater, Dive, Ice, Surf, Wilderness, Mine and Tunnel, Cave and Machinery Rescue. Within each of these disciplines there are two levels of qualifications:
Level I. This level shall apply to individuals who identify hazards, use equipment, and apply limited techniques specified in this standard to perform technical rescue operations.
Level II. This level shall apply to individuals who identify hazards, use equipment, and apply advanced techniques specified in this standard to perform technical rescue operations.
Some of these rescue environments are low frequency events for a lot of technical rescue organizations and are considered high risk events. So one has to remember that this standard again only establishes the “minimum level of competency for a rescuer” therefore, retention of knowledge and developed skill sets are very fragile. These skill sets must be maintained to ensure that a rescuer is able to perform when the need arises. Monthly, periodic and annual currency and proficiency training is a must for agencies providing technical rescue services. With some disciplines there may be OSHA regulations that also require annual training like confine space and trench.
Some other relevant NFPA standards to the technical rescue arena are:
NFPA 1983 (Standard on Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency Services – 2012 Edition)
NFPA 1951 (Standard on protective Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents – 2013 Edition)
NFPA 1855 (Standard for Selection, Care and Maintenance of Protective Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents – 2013 Edition)
NFPA 1952 (Standard on Surface Water Operations Protective Clothing and Equipment – 2015 Edition)
NFPA 1936 (Standard on Power Rescue Tools – 2015 Edition)
NFPA 1561 (Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System and Command Safety – 2014 Edition)
NFPA 1410 (Standard on Training for Emergency Scene Operations – 2015 Edition)
NFPA 1401 (Standard for Fire Service Respiratory Protection Training – 2013 Edition)
NFPA 471 (Standard on Recommended practice for Responding to Hazardous Materials Incidents – 2002 Edition)
NFPA 472 (Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents – 2013 Edition)
NFPA 473 (Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents – 2013 Edition)
NFPA 1500 (Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program – 2012 Edition)
NFPA 1521 (Standard for Fire Department Safety Officer Professional Qualifications – 2015 Edition)
NFPA 1583 (Standard on Health-Related Fitness Programs for Fire Department Members – 2015 Edition)
NFPA 1584 (Standard on the Rehabilitation Process for Members during Emergency Operations and Training Exercises – 2015 Edition)
NFPA Standards on the horizon:
NFPA 1952 (Standard on Protective Ensembles for Contaminated Water Diving – Proposed future date 2016)
NFPA 1986 (Standard on Respiratory Protection Equipment for Technical and Tactical Operations – Proposed future date 2017)
The NFPA Standards exist to provide an organization with a foundational framework for agency operation and incident management as well as training guidelines. While these standards are not regulatory, they have been widely accepted among those in the technical rescue arena as a consensus-based standard. They should be considered when an agency is looking into organization development and training programs. One really should obtain copies of the standards that are and will be relevant to them, and really dive into them to grasp a better understanding of them. The training programs of ERDI have been, and will continue to be, researched to make sure they achieve adherence to the relevant NFPA standards as they apply to agency programs. “There are no walls in the ocean to hold onto, no time-outs can be called, and re-dos are not granted when things are not going as planned.” Proper planning prior to an emergency is paramount. So grab some coffee and sit back with the Lil’ red books of NFPA.
SDI/TDI/ERDI Instructor Trainer with Air Hogs Scuba in Garner, NC, Captain with the Harnett County Underwater Search & Recovery Dive Team and technical rescue instructor for NC Fire and Rescue Commission
The County of Henrico, Virginia hosted an ERDI Non-Diving Swift Water Instructor Course May 18th through the 22nd bringing out Instructor Trainer Eric Brooks of ProTech Scuba LLC to run the course. During this 40-hour course, five members of the Chesterfield Fire District, five members of the Richmond Fire District, and five members of the County of Henrico Fire District participated in the instructor level activities. In the first three days of the course, candidates honed their academic presentation skills, before completing their swimming requirements and dry-land training on day four. The final day was spent at “Pipeline,” a swift-water training site located in the heart of Richmond, VA. During this final day of training the instructor candidates demonstrated their superior watermanship and technical level skills. All of the candidates did a fantastic job and as new instructors are a welcome addition to the ERDI family. Gentlemen, good luck with your first swift water course!
Picture 1, Back row from left to right: Pierce Brinkley, Gene Ledlie, Colin McCaffrey, Mike Possanza, Bruce Ivey, DJ Jennings, Mike Burnett, and Sean Labadie. Front row from left to right: Devin Creamer, Brian Van Drew, Riley Gorman, Kevin Knight, Cpt. Brian Turnage, Mike Goodman, and Tyler Lowery.
Picture 2, Instructor candidates gear up in the parking lot just east of the Pipeline training site.
Eric Brooks is a 16-year member of the Cochise County Sheriff’s Office Search and Rescue Posse, and owner of ProTech Scuba LLC in Sierra Vista, Arizona.
by Dr. Thomas Powell:
Imagine it is the middle of January. At 2am the call comes in that a vehicle has entered the water with the potential for trapped passengers. As you race to your vehicle, the ice and snow cause you to slip and slide along your driveway. As you arrive on scene with your teammates, you realize that the water temperature is even colder than the air temperature. Despite the harsh conditions, you know that lives may be at stake and you need to enter the water. In search and rescue/recovery diving, divers face many potential hazards. One of the greatest hazards public safety divers may face is hypothermia. There are various methods to reduce the threat of becoming hypothermic, but divers must train in the use of these methods to be prepared when a real mission takes place.
- Exposure Protection
- Reduced Bottom Time
- Medical Support
- Practice and Training
The most obvious method of reducing the threat of hypothermia is to wear the proper exposure protection. In the world of public safety diving, dry suits are essential. Dry suits create a barrier of air between the diver and the natural environment. The problem with dry suits is that they often have little or no properties that provide thermal protection. For this reason, public safety divers must consider the use of undergarments. Undergarments come in various weights and sizes designed to provide different levels of thermal protection. The best thing that any dive team can do is analyze the temperatures it faces within the region it operates. Various undergarment weights may be needed to allow for proper thermal protection during temperature changes throughout the year.
Dive teams around the United States often forego the use of undergarments. Instead divers will wear street clothes or “sweat clothes” underneath dry suits. The problem with “sweat clothes” is that they are often made of cotton, which retains moisture such as sweat. Allowing wet cotton to remain against the skin can cause the diver’s body temperature to drop as the material cools. Similarly, street clothes often provide little or no thermal protection. For these reasons, dive teams should consider looking into the various types of thermal protection designed for dry suit use within the scuba industry. Once undergarments are selected, the divers must train in the use of these undergarments. Differing types of undergarments often have differing buoyancy characteristics and may require weight adjustments for each diver. Similarly, with the addition of extra material, divers need to practice underwater skill sets to ensure capability and comfort.
Many public safety divers develop a mindset focused on success. In many cases, this mentality is essential to remain focused and capable when faced with harsh conditions and no visibility underwater. The problem that can arise with this mindset is that divers will often push limits and take unnecessary risks. For this reason, a diver may request to stay underwater longer and increase the risk for the development of hypothermia. Team leaders, supervisors, and even tenders must watch for this attitude and make sure that divers stay within safe limitations. In many cases, the development of maximum bottom times can be developed within team standard operating guidelines to ensure that all divers stay within reasonable time-based dive limits. If these standards are developed, teams must train to perform and enforce time restrictions. Public safety divers must remember that they go on missions to help others, but not to take risks that may add death or injury to an already problematic situation.
In many cases, dive teams do not take advantage of resources located within their communities. These resources may be firefighters trained in hazardous materials decontamination, law enforcement personnel trained in scene security or crime scene investigation, or emergency medical technicians. Medical personnel are critical to the success of any public safety dive operation. If emergency medical technicians or paramedics are available to take baseline physiological readings before divers enter the water, they will have an improved likelihood of recognizing physical changes as divers exit the water. After any diver exits the water and undergoes any needed decontamination, the safest action to take is to have the diver checked out by medical personnel. Professionals of this type can recognize the onset of hypothermia and take corrective actions as needed to ensure diver safety. Emergency medical technicians and paramedics can also help to ensure that divers remain hydrated and intake calories to help fight off problematic physiological situations. In certain cases, medical personnel will even offer heated vehicles as a location for chilled divers to fight off the onset of hypothermic conditions. If medical personnel who are not members of a dive team are going to be used during active missions, they should be invited to partake in training to ensure that all parties will understand how each other will react and perform during a real mission.
The primary action that any dive team must establish is regular training. Training ensures that divers do not become complacent and that team members and associated parties understand how to act, perform, and behave during real missions. Training evolutions are the perfect time to practice regulated periods of bottom time, interactions with medical personnel, and even skill proficiency using condition-specific equipment. Training and practice will ensure that divers are best protected and that a team understands how to recognize and react to problems that are out of the ordinary such as a diver suffering from hypothermia.
Hypothermia is a condition that can debilitate a diver and his or her team. If a diver goes down, the team may lose a critical member. Similarly, the diver may face a serious personal ailment. Public safety divers must obtain and then maintain the proper equipment needed to fight the potential for hypothermia. These divers must then work to establish a manner in which they can train to best monitor, evaluate, and care for team members in a fashion that best supports operational objectives. More than anything, public safety divers must care for themselves, and work to support the community in which they dive rather than take unnecessary risks that could cause self-harm or injury.
– Dr. Thomas Powell
Owner/Instructor Trainer – Air Hogs Scuba, Garner, NC
by Tanya Chapman:
It’s 8:00pm on a Saturday evening, you have just sat down in your most comfortable chair after a long day of grueling yard work anticipating a quiet night to relax, you find yourself starting to doze off a bit. Suddenly, you are jolted awake by the sounds of a cell phone ringing, a pager going off or some other form of notification that you are urgently needed to respond to a report of a car in the water with a child still inside.
You rush to gather your necessary equipment, your mind racing on what equipment is needed and available, the safest and most expeditious route to the scene, who needs to be notified, what your actions will be upon your arrival, how you will manage the scene, your manpower, your resources. You arrive and begin to gather the facts of what occurred, where the vehicle entered the water, where it is currently located. You assess the water’s temperature, depth, clarity and current so that the personnel you have enter it are appropriately protected from visible and invisible hazards.
Time is of the essence as your emotions demand you to recover the vehicle as quickly as possible in hopes that your team may save a life, even while the more logical side tells you that with each passing minute that chance is reduced. Your team enters the water exactly where you were told the vehicle would be and after what feels like an eternity, determines there is no vehicle present. As the adrenaline subsides you are trying to sort out the facts, are you in the wrong location, who reported the call, are the divers missing underwater clues to the vehicle’s location?
And then you are reminded of something someone said when you arrived at the scene, there is a witness standing on the bank. Your attention turns and now you are focused on this person, someone who may hold the answers which you desperately seek. You speak to him and determine that he is the owner of the vehicle and yes, it went into the water and is now submerged but the location of it is not where you were told or are searching and that no one was in the vehicle when it entered the water. The reported trapped child was actually his daughter’s baby doll which had been left in the car. As relief comes over you, you realize your focus can now change to a vehicle recovery instead of a potential rescue.
In the aftermath of this call you begin to evaluate your team’s actions and try to seek ways to improve your response. As an ERDI Dive Team Supervisor, you realize a possible improvement step would be to interview all potential witnesses at each scene prior to allowing any divers to enter the water. While you have many other additional responsibilities to complete at a dive site, the realization occurs that you are in the most appropriate position to complete this task.
Being tasked with identifying and speaking to (interviewing) anyone who may have specific knowledge to what has occurred and what you are searching for may be a difficult, daunting and time consuming task. Frequently, in your role as Dive Team Supervisor, there are other issues that you are addressing concurrently while interviewing witnesses and bystanders that compete for your attention. Your experience as a diver is beneficial to you as it allows you to understand and comprehend how to apply the knowledge learned from your interviews to the dive environment, but it is not a necessity.
In this role you are essentially responsible for gathering as much intelligence from the scene as possible. This may include precipitating events leading to the submersion. You should be the only team member tasked with gathering information for the team as it can create confusion and misinformation if more than one person is assigned this task. The goal should be to compile a comprehensive, accurate and objective summation as expeditiously as possible. The fundamental questions of who, what, when, where, and how should be answered if possible. A paramount task in this assignment is the understanding that each witness interviewed is likely to provide a different response to each of these questions. This does not automatically indicate that the witness is being deceptive but may be a result of each individual’s perception of the event being different.
It is your duty to consolidate these in a manner which provides some consistency when passing the information along to the Dive Safety Officer. The Dive Safety Officer should be briefed on any relevant information which may affect the safety of the divers or the security of the scene. It is also imperative your original notes taken from witness and/or bystander interviews be maintained in their initial state, unchanged by anyone present at the scene as these notes may become part of the evidentiary chain of custody.
Your dedicating the time to gather relevant information to be analyzed and evaluated for usefulness allows other team members to focus on completing their assigned tasks without the additional burden of questioning the details or trying to assimilate information from multiple witnesses. It additionally provides witnesses or bystanders with a known person to contact directly in the event they remember or recall information which may be vital to the recovery effort.
Dive Team Supervisors should be articulate, able to multitask effectively and have the authority to make decisions based on the information received for the agency in which they represent. Persons in this role are not required to have completed interview and interrogation training as their mission is more one of fact gathering. However, they should be cognizant that an active public safety dive site is not the time to transition an interview into an interrogation.
In the hectic time surrounding the arrival at the scene, a concerted effort should be made to locate and interview witnesses prior to any dives commencing if the situation allows. Often times this component may not be viewed by some as necessary to a dive team’s operation however it is vitally important. The ability to effectively and efficiently obtain information from witnesses and bystanders prior to divers submerging is an invaluable skill which when applied to a public safety dive team will lessen the risk to all those involved.
– Tanya Chapman – Training Manager – North Carolina Justice Academy
– Instructor – Air Hogs Scuba, Garner, NC